According to historical records, the earliest soap formula originated in Mesopotamia in Western Asia (meaning "the middle of the two rivers", between the Euphrates River and the bottom of the Griess River). About 3000 B.C., people mixed 1 Oils and 5 alkaline plant ashes to make detergent. There were many legends about the origin of soap in Europe. One said that the ancient Rome's Gaul people mixed the amion and beech grey solution into a thick, hair and hairstyle. Once, a heavy rain broke out in the festival, and the hair was badly damaged. It is also said that when the Romans sacrificed their gods, the barbecued beef and mutton oil fell into the ashes and formed the "grease ball". Women found that clothes washed with grease balls were easier to wash. This shows that people used animal fat and plant ash (soap) for thousands of years.
Archaeologists found soap making workshops in the ruins of Pompeii in Italy. It shows that the Romans started the production of soap in the early second Century. Chinese people have long known that the use of grass wood ash and natural alkali washing clothes, people also pig pancreas, lard and natural movement of the mixture, made into a block, called "the pancreas."
Early soap was a luxury, and until the French chemist rubran used electrolysis salt to make it cheap in 1791, it ended the old way of making alkali from grass and wood ash. In 1823, German chemist sepher discovered the structure and characteristics of fatty acids, and soap was a kind of fatty acids. In the late nineteenth Century, the soap making industry was transformed from manual workshop to industrial production.
The reason that soap can be decontamination is because it has a special molecular structure, one end of the molecule is hydrophilic and the other end has a pro fat. In the interface between water and oil, the soap makes the oil emulsified and dissolves in the soap water. On the water and air interface, the soap is surrounded by the air molecules to form soap bubbles. The original insoluble dirt can no longer be attached to the surface of the clothes due to the action of soap, but it is dissolved in soap foam and finally washed away.
In eighteenth Century, the French used salt and Carboniferous to make "artificial soda" instead of the traditional juice extracted from ashes. In nineteenth Century, the Germans invented the electric decomposition of salt water to make sodium hydroxide; since then, the popularization of caustic soda has allowed the soap to change from the original only to the Royal aristocrat and become the daily necessities of the common people.
Prior to that, the manufacture of soap depended on experienced craftsmen. Use the ratio of fat and alkali to modulate, because there is no information to read and often retry because it can not solidify.
It is worth mentioning that during the pioneering period in the United States, immigrants would pick up the whole village to make soap in the early spring when the weather was warm.
The source of soap material is from the oak, beech and other wood extracts of astringent juice, as a source of alkali juice, if not enough, from the ashes of the stove. With alkali juice, oil from animal fat or vegetable oil is used in food, but once oil and water are separated, it will have to be repeated again. In nineteenth Century, enterprises invested in soap production.
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