Main animal fats and oils for soap production
Commonly used soap main animal fat: butter, lard. Butter is the main by-product of processing fatty acid industry, and it is the main raw material of soap making. The linoleic acid content of lard is high, so it is easy to be used for making soap. When the soap is made, the non edible lard after half hardening is substituted for the butter.
Ii. extraction of animal fats and oils
Animal fats need to be aware of the effects of lipase and bacteria before cooking grease, which can be used to get high quality animal fats. The quality of oil can be improved by washing, bleaching, alkali refining, deodorization, hydrogenation and other processes.
1) Water Washing
Washing can effectively remove the pigment and impurities in the grease. The washing temperature is best in (100 ℃). In order to enhance the hydration effect, the washing can be added to a mild surfactant, such as sodium phosphate, the amount of oil in the amount of 0.1% with 10% of the solution to join.
For soap-making animal fats and oils, usually need to remove pigment, the most commonly used is the use of acidic activated clay adsorption, remove pigment. When the oil decolorization, the temperature is 105-115 ℃, and need to add 0.5%-1% water, the decolorization is more advantageous.
3) Alkali Refining
Only in the special requirements (soap soap), the alkali refining. In the oil alkali refining, the appropriate concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is used. After bleaching and alkali refining, the oil color can reach up to 0.5-1.0.
The grease used for soap making is not very common. Usually use the method of adding incense to cover the smell of soap.
After the hydrogenation of grease, the stability of oil is increased, and the foam and solubility of soap can be improved. In particular, the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid polymers can prevent the deterioration of soap.